Michael J. Malone
Douglas County Law Library

Judicial and Law Enforcement Center
111 East 11th Street
Lawrence, Kansas 66044
info@douglascolawlibrary.org
Phone: (785) 838-2477
Fax: (785) 838-2455


This Month in Legal History Archive

2011

This page contains archived entries from the "This Month in Legal History" column published in 2011 in the Michael J. Malone Douglas County Law Library E-Mail Newsletter and on the Home page of this website. Each month, the column features a different event from the history of law and jurisprudence of Douglas County, Kansas, that occurred during the month.



January 29, 1861 - Lawrence, Kansas, celebrates statehood with a bang - “Old Sacramento” was one of ten cannons captured from Mexican forces by United States forces led by Colonel Alexander Doniphan on February 28, 1847, in the Battle of Sacramento during the Mexican-American War. After the War, “Old Sacramento” and the other nine cannons were taken to the Federal arsenal in Liberty, Missouri. When President Franklin Pierce signed the Kansas-Nebraska Act on May 30, 1854, he unknowingly began seven years of violence and bloodshed as men fought over whether the new territory of Kansas would come into the Union as a state that allowed slavery. The town of Lawrence became the headquarters of the Free-State movement in the territory, and as such was the target of significant animosity from proslavery men. Despite this pressure, it continued to be the locus of antislavery activity throughout the time that has come to be known as “Bleeding Kansas.” Sometime in late 1855 or early 1856, proslavery forces took “Old Sacramento” from the Liberty Arsenal and brought it into Kansas to use against the Free-State forces in the Territory. They reportedly brought it to Lawrence on May 21, 1856, and possibly fired it during the sacking of the town that day, using it to help destroy the Free State Hotel. After Lawrence had been sacked and burned, they moved the cannon to the town of Franklin a few miles southeast of Lawrence, and set it up in a fortified log structure there known as Fort Franklin. On June 4, 1856, Free-State men attacked the fort. The defenders fought back, firing “Old Sacramento” at least once during the fight. Eventually the proslavery men were forced to flee, leaving the cannon behind. The Free-State men took possession of the cannon and brought it back to Lawrence. A little over two months after the Battle of Franklin, on August 16, 1856, the cannon was used in the successful Free-State attack on Fort Titus, a proslavery stronghold about two miles south of Lecompton, Kansas. The cannon was supposedly loaded with shot made from lead printing type, recovered from the office of the Herald of Freedom newspaper that proslavery raiders had destroyed during the attack on Lawrence on May 21st. Two of the defenders were killed that day and six severely injured. Eight Free-State men were wounded, one of them mortally. After the Battle of Fort Titus, the cannon was brought back to Lawrence. On September 14, 1856, “Old Sacramento” was brought up to Hickory Point, a small settlement in Jefferson County, Kansas Territory, and was fired a number of times as Free-State forces tried to dislodge a large company of proslavery men who had taken refuge in several fortified log buildings. After several unsuccessful assaults, the fighting ended with a negotiated compromise. One proslavery man was killed, and four proslavery and five Free-State men were wounded in the fighting. After the Battle of Hickory Point, the cannon was taken back to Douglas County. It was never used again in battle. When the violence in the Territory subsided, a decision was made to hide the cannon to keep it safe in case the violence returned and it were needed again. “Old Sacramento” was taken to Thomas Bickerton’s farm near Clinton, Kansas Territory, and buried on his property there. On January 21, 1861, a bill for the admission of Kansas to the Union under the Free-State Wyandotte Constitution was passed by the United States Senate. One week later, on January 28th, the bill passed the House of Representatives. President James Buchanan signed the bill into law the next day, January 29, 1861, a date to be known forever after as “Kansas Day”. At the time of the House vote, five Southern states had already seceded from the Union, so the vote in favor of Kansas being admitted to the Union as a state that did not allow slavery was in part made possible by the seceded states having given up their ability to vote against it. Word of the passing of the bill admitting Kansas to the Union was quickly telegraphed to Leavenworth, Kansas, and the Leavenworth Conservative published an extra edition. Copies of the paper announcing statehood were rushed to Lawrence. The news that Douglas County, Kansas Territory, was now Douglas County, Kansas, and that the long struggle to legally exclude slavery from the area had been successfully concluded, reached town before dark, and was met by music and wild celebration in Lawrence. A large company of men was dispatched to the farm of Thomas Bickerton to dig up “Old Sacramento.” They did so, and brought it back to Lawrence, arriving after dark. The jubilant citizens began firing the cannon to celebrate the admission of Kansas to the Union as a Free State. The firing continued through the late evening of the 29th and on through the early morning hours of the 30th. The cannon stayed in Lawrence, and after the end of the Civil War, it was brought out for parades and special occasions. In July 1896, “Old Sacramento” was employed to help recover the bodies of several people who had drowned in the Kaw River in Lawrence. There was a widely held belief that the concussion from a fired cannon would cause sunken bodies to rise to the surface. The gun was taken to the riverbank and loaded and fired repeatedly, each time with a heavier charge, until the recoil wrecked the carriage. Finally, a charge of three pounds of gunpowder was loaded into the cannon, and gunny sacks, wet grass, wet clay, and other material was pounded in with a sledgehammer on top of the powder. When the cannon was fired, it exploded, blowing out a large section of the barrel at the firing chamber. The largest piece of the blown out section went through the Consolidated Barb Wire Mill building, and smaller pieces were thrown clear across the river. While there was no report of any spectators or foolhardy cannoneers being injured by the explosion, “Old Sacramento” was destroyed. The shattered barrel of the historic cannon was put on display in the Museum at the University of Kansas. Sometime later, it was transferred to the custody of the Douglas County Historical Society, and the remains of “Old Sacramento” are currently on display in the Watkins Community Museum of History in Lawrence. (From: A Standard History of Kansas and Kansans, written and compiled by William E. Connelley, Chapter 39, 1918; Order of Secession During the American Civil War, Order of Seceding States, by Martin Kelly, About.com Guide; When Kansas Became a State, Kansas Historical Quarterly, vol. 27, no. 1 (Spring 1961), pp. 1-21; The Civil War Muse, Watkins Community Museum; The Kansas Centennial: An Intellectual Journey, part IV in Variations on a Theme: History as Knowledge of the Past, by George L. Anderson, Coronado Press, Lawrence, Kansas, 1970; Kansas day: containing a brief history of Kansas, and a collection by Kansas authors, by F. H. Barrington, Geo. W. Crane & company, 1892, p. 62; Kansas: a cyclopedia of state history, embracing events, institutions, industries, counties, cities, towns, prominent persons, etc., Standard Publishing Co, Chicago, 1912, v. 1, pp. 841-842 and, v. 2, pp. 617-618; Legends of America, Battle of Franklin of Bleeding Kansas; Historic Lecompton, The Battle of Fort Titus; and, National Register of Historic Places, Multiple Property Documentation Form, Historic Resources of Lawrence, Douglas County, Kansas. Published 1/11.)  Back to top of page

February 26, 2001 - The Douglas County Law Library is established by a vote of local attorneys - In the closing years of the 20th century, members of the local legal community perceived a growing need for a law library to serve the attorneys and general public in Douglas County, Kansas. In the fall of 2000, the Honorable Michael J. Malone, then Chief Judge of the Seventh Judicial District, proposed to the Bench/Bar Committee of the Douglas County Bar Association that it consider establishing a county law library. The Committee decided to ask local attorneys if there was enough interest to move forward with the proposal. The Committee appointed a six-member subcommittee to coordinate and conduct an election on establishing a law library, pursuant to the requirements set forth in K.S.A. 20-3126(b). On February 26, 2001, the committee held an election among local attorneys, asking whether a county law library should be established. The attorneys voted 109 in favor and 12 against, thereby approving the establishment of a library. According to statute, the five sitting district court judges, the Honorable Michael J. Malone, the Honorable Robert Fairchild, the Honorable Paula B. Martin, the Honorable Jack A. Murphy, and the Honorable Jean F. Shepherd, became members of a board of trustees for the newly approved law library. Since the five members constituted a quorum of the new Douglas County Law Library Board of Trustees, they immediately held a meeting by e-mail on February 27-28, 2001. The board passed a motion that set the attorney representation on the Board at four members, two more than the statutory requirement that no fewer than two attorney members be elected to two-year terms on a county law library board. In addition, the board set the law library docket fees that are authorized in K.S.A. 20-3129, with collection to begin in March of 2001. The board held an election to fill the four attorney positions on the board of trustees in May of 2001. Douglas County attorneys elected David J. Brown, Kay Huff, Margie Wakefield, and Charles Whitman, all of whom had been members of the Bench/Bar election subcommittee, to serve on the board. The board held its first regular meeting on May 31, 2001. At that meeting, it set the annual Law Library Registration Fee for local attorneys at the statutory minimum of $10.00 and authorized Doug Hamilton, Clerk of the Douglas County District Court, to begin collecting the fee pursuant to K.S.A 20-3126(c). Over the next year and a half, the board researched and investigated the necessities of opening and operating a law library, including the finding of a suitable location for the library and the hiring of a law librarian. The Judicial and Law Enforcement Center was undergoing renovation during that time, which allowed some flexibility in identifying a space for the library to occupy. The board chose an area on the south side of the Judicial and Law Enforcement Center and next to the south entrance of the building as the location for the future library. The space had previously been part of the Citizen Review Board offices. Construction began to adapt the space for library use. During the summer of 2002, the board conducted a search for a law librarian with Kerry Altenbernd eventually being hired to fill the position. He began work on October 1, 2002. The board and the law librarian worked for the next seven months to finish renovation of the space, outfit the library, and otherwise make it ready for opening. The official opening of the Douglas County Law Library was marked by a ribbon-cutting ceremony on May 1, 2003. (From: The Law Library History page on this website. Published 2/11.)  Back to top of page

March 17, 1823 - Thaddeus Prentice, Jr., future sheriff of Douglas County, Kansas, is born in Jewett City, Connecticut - Early on December 23, 1857, Thaddeus Prentice, Jr., and his younger brother, William, rode north the twelve miles from their home to Lawrence, Kansas, to join a group of other Free-State men who had been recruited by the Free State Safety Committee. The Committee had been organized to protect Free-State settlers from marauding proslavery forces in Kansas, and had recruited a group of sixty men to retrieve 250 muskets and 75 sabers that had been taken in October 1856 from an emigrant wagon train by proslavery forces under orders of the then Territorial Governor John W. Geary. A Territorial election was scheduled for January 4, 1858, and the Free-State men believed they needed the weapons to insure that the election was a fair one. In the first Territorial election in March of 1855, thousands of proslavery Missourians had come over the border into Kansas, had taken control of polling places, voted, kept Free-State men from voting, and then went back home to Missouri after a "Bogus" proslavery legislature had been elected. The Free-State men did not want a repeat of this in the January 1858 election. The group that included the two Prentice brothers set off for Lecompton, the Territorial Capitol, to confront newly appointed Territorial Governor James W. Denver. When the group arrived on the edge of Lecompton, three men went in to see the Governor, leaving orders that if they did not returned within two hours, the remainder of the party was to come into town. They did not want to use force against Governor Denver unless absolutely necessary. When they did not return before the two-hour time limit expired, Thaddeus Prentice led the remaining men into town. When 57 Free-State men entered his office demanding the weapons, Denver reluctantly agreed to turn them over, which he did. The men brought them back to Lawrence, arriving there late in the evening, and distributed them to the militia. Thaddeus Prentice, Jr., was the fourth son born to Thaddeus Prentice, Sr., and Almira Gordon Prentice. He spent his first eight years in the town of his birth, Jewett City, Connecticut, before moving with his family to Willimantic, Connecticut, where he grew to manhood. On March 25, 1846, he married Anna Louisa Ayer. They began a family, and had two sons before they moved to Erie County, New York, in 1849. Prentice supposedly worked for a time as a sheriff in Erie County (1). During their time in Erie County, Thaddeus and Anna had three more children, two girls and a boy. In 1856, Prentice packed up his wife and five children and moved to Kansas, arriving in Lawrence on May 21, 1856 (2). The family was likely on their way to stay with Anna's sister, Joanna Gleason, who had come to Kansas in 1854, and was living in Willow Springs Township southwest of Lawrence. The day that the Prentices arrived in Lawrence was also the day that the town was sacked and partially burned by a group of between 400 and 600 proslavery men led by the proslavery Sheriff of Douglas County, Sam Jones. Lawrence was the headquarters of the Free-State movement that was seeking admission of the Territory to the Union as a state that did not allow slavery, and so was the object of significant animosity from those in the Territory who supported slavery. On May 21, that animosity significantly escalated the level of violence that had already been plaguing "Bleeding Kansas." It is not known how much of the goings on that day were witnessed by Thaddeus and his family, but, despite being unlucky enough to arrive in Lawrence on that particular day, and having received such an unfriendly welcome, Prentice settled his family near Brooklyn, a small settlement along the Santa Fe Trail in Douglas County south of Lawrence. He acquired some land and began farming. That winter, Thaddeus' younger brother, William, arrived in Kansas, and lived for some time with his older brother's family. Thaddeus Prentice was described as, "…an original character, who in appearance might be considered a companion piece to Jim Lane." Jim Lane was one of the leaders of the Free-state movement in Kansas, and was known at times to have a somewhat wild appearance, with his hair uncombed and standing straight up. Thaddeus was said to have had, "…a rare faculty of getting news. If any mischief was brewing in his direction, he would somehow get wind of it by a sort of instinct, by a sort of sixth sense. Whenever he felt that there was something in the air of this kind, he would mount his horse and ride into Lawrence. Whenever the people saw the tall, gaunt figure of 'Thad. Prentice' coming down the street, they knew that it was 'tidings, my Lord, tidings.'" He had, "…many quaint expressions which came to seem like a part of him. If everything was favorable he would reply to the questions asked him, 'Oh, everything is lovely and the goose hangs high.'(3)" After the men from the Free State Safety Committee visited Territorial Governor Denver, the trouble in the Territory slowly clamed down as the Free-State cause began to win out over the proslavery faction, and Thaddeus devoted his time to farming and raising his children. He maintained a presence in Brooklyn, but for at least some of the time, his family lived in Lawrence, as shown by the United States Census record for Lawrence, dated June 18, 1860, in which his family is recorded as living there. On January 29, 1861, Kansas entered the Union as a Free State, and in April of that year, the civil war that had begun in Kansas broke out across the nation. In the summer of 1863, Thaddeus and most of his family were living on their farm at Brooklyn. His oldest son, Charles, was living and working in Lawrence. At dawn on August 21, 1863, William Clarke Quantrill, perhaps the most notorious Confederate guerilla commander in the American Civil War, and 400 of his men attacked Lawrence. They proceeded to pillage and burn the town, and one of the businesses they targeted was the Winchell & Burt wholesale house, where Charles Prentice was employed as a clerk. Charles occasionally spent the night in the business, and was sleeping there when the attack began. He crawled under the building, and when the raiders set it on fire, he crawled out and surrendered. Mr. Burt, one of the owners of the business, was killed by the raiders, but Charles was spared. After four hours of destruction and bloodshed in which over 150 men and boys were killed, Quantrill and his men headed south out of town, burning houses as they went. When they reached Brooklyn, they stopped and began setting fire to the houses and other buildings in the small town. They had just begun to set fire to Thaddeus Prentice's house when a group of citizens under the command of Jim Lane caught up to them. The pursuers drove off the raiders, and thought they were able to save the Prentice house, few buildings around Brooklyn were saved. Sometime later, Thaddeus moved his family to a house on the east side of Connecticut Street in Lawrence. The move may have been precipitated by Thaddeus assuming the duties of City Marshal for Lawrence. In addition to being City Marshal, Thaddeus also served as Douglas County Sheriff, and from January 1864 to January 1866, as County Coroner. On October 16, 1864, he enlisted as a private in Company M of the Third Regiment of the Kansas State Militia, but was mustered out of service only nine days later on October 27. Thaddeus Prentice, Jr., died at 2:00 AM on Friday, June 12, 1868, of a bronchial affection and disease of the lungs. He was buried that same day in Oak Hill Cemetery, near the final resting place of many victims of Quantrill's Raid. His law enforcement legacy was continued by his son Charles, who served as City Marshal of Lawrence from 1883 to 1886, and again from 1900 to 1905.

(1) In
the article in The Howland Quarterly, it is noted that Prentice, "was a sheriff of Erie County…." The Erie County, New York, Sheriff Department's website lists those who have served as sheriff in the county, the list going back to 1823, and Prentice is not on the list. Assuming that when the article says he was "a" sheriff, it did not mean he was "the" sheriff, and assuming that the sheriff office's list is complete, then he probably served there either as a deputy or as undersheriff, and not as sheriff.

(2) Different sources give two different dates as to when Prentice and his family arrived in Lawrence. The entry for Prentice on the Find a Grave website reports their arrival in Douglas County as being in March 1856, and the Descendants of Robert Prentice page on the PrenticeNet website notes that Thaddeus, "moved to Lawrence, KS in Mar 1856." The article in The Howland Quarterly, notes he and his family arrived in Lawrence on May 21, 1856. Since the latter has more detail about Prentice than do the other two, it is assumed here to be the most accurate of the three.

(3) This is an interesting expression for a Free-State man to use. During the "Bleeding Kansas" era, a person being asked if they were, "sound on the goose" was a potentially deadly occurrence. Being "sound on the goose" meant that someone supported the proslavery cause, the "goose" being a euphemism for slavery. Men on both sides of the slavery issue were known to ask the question, so if a group of unknown men rode up to someone and asked the question, the person would be unsure how to answer. If the person did not give the men the answer that they wanted, that person could be in big, frequently fatal, trouble. The expression "Everything is lovely and the goose hangs high" was not uncommon during the latter half of the 19th Century. There is a reference to soldiers of the 137th New York Infantry Regiment singing the words as they marched past the body of a Confederate spy hanging from a tree. The man had been hanged after having been caught with incriminating documents in General Buford's camp immediately after the Battle of Gettysburg. There are reports that the expression was sometimes used by members of Jesse James' gang and other Confederate sympathizers after the Civil War. Why Thaddeus Prentice used that expression is open to speculation, but considering his political opinions, he might have used it as a commentary on the other "goose" expression, his meaning being that slavery in Kansas was dangling from a rope, as would be the unfortunate Confederate spy caught by General Buford some years later.

(From: The Howland Quarterly, v. 60, no. 4 (December 1995), pp. 7-9; Sheriffs of Erie County, Erie County, New York, Sheriff's Office website; Thaddeus Prentice, Jr., Find a Grave website; Thaddeus Prentice Jr., Descendants of Robert Prentice, PrenticeNet.com website; A History of Lawrence from the earliest settlement to the close of the rebellion, by Richard Cordley, E. F. Caldwell, Lawrence, Kansas, 1895, Chapter 6; Final Report on the Battlefield at Gettysburg, New York Monuments Commission for the Battlefields of Gettysburg and Chattanooga, vol. 3, J.B. Lyons Co., Albany, 1900, p. 943; Posting, U.S. Outlaws Forum, Genforum.genealogy.com website; United States Census, Douglas County, Kansas, 1860; Quantrill and the Border Wars, by William Elsey Connelley, The Torch Press, Cedar Rapids, IA, 1910, p. 398; A Standard History of Kansas and Kansans, written and compiled by William E. Connelley, Chicago : Lewis, 1918, Chapter 45, p. 1; William G. Cutler's History of the State of Kansas, Douglas County, Part 3, County Organization and Official Roster; and, Marshals to Chiefs, unpublished manuscript, compiled by Christopher L. Mulvenon. Published 3/11.
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April 21, 1863 - Cattle thieves arrested in Douglas County, Kansas - On April 17, 1863, thirty-four head of cattle were stolen in Butler County, Kansas. Several Indians were put on the trail of the herd and tracked it "across streams, over rocky divides, and across the prairies." Though they lost the trail several times, "They, with native shrewdness, managed to make out the general course of the drove." The authorities must have suspected who the thief was, as A.R. Bancroft, Deputy Sheriff of Lyon County, Kansas (1), "was intrusted with the papers for the arrest of the thief." The Indian trackers must also have given them a good idea of where the thief was, because on the morning of April 21, 1863, a man named Arnold, presumably 26 year-old Hiram S. Arnold, was arrested in Lawrence, Kansas, and put in jail. Arnold directed authorities to a place about four miles south of Lawrence on the Wakarusa River where the stolen cattle were being tended by another man. Arnold told the authorities that the other man had only been hired to help drive the cattle the 150 miles from Butler County to where they had ended up in Douglas County, and should not be implicated in the theft. Both men were taken as prisoners to Lyon County. As reported in the August 23, 1863, edition of the Kansas State Journal, the Court was sitting, so the two would probably be tried that week. According to the newspaper, "Arnold is an old resident of Lyon County, and circumstances lead to the belief that he is an old offender." The reason why men accused of stealing cattle from Butler County would be tried in Lyon County was not explained. It is probable that in 1863, Lyon County was the seat of the judicial district that included Butler County, but if this is the case, it is not apparent.

(1) Lyon County had previously been named Breckinridge County, in honor of John C. Breckinridge (1821-1875). Breckinridge had been a congressman from Kentucky and an ally of United States Senator Stephen Douglas of Illinois, and had worked hard to get Douglas' Kansas-Nebraska Act, the legislation that established the Territory of Kansas, passed in congress. The proslavery Kansas Territorial Legislature recognized his actions by naming the county for Breckinridge when it was organized in 1855. From 1857 to 1861, Breckinridge served as vice-president of the United States under James Buchanan, and was nominated by the Southern Democrats as their candidate for President in the 1860 election. Both he and the nominee of the Northern Democrats, his friend Stephen Douglas, were defeated in that election by Abraham Lincoln, the husband of Mary Todd Lincoln, one of Breckinridge's cousins. Later in November 1860, Breckinridge was appointed to the United States Senate. Lincoln's election precipitated southern states to begin seceding from the Union the month after his election to the Presidency. Breckinridge served in the Senate from March to December 1861, during which time the Civil War broke out across the nation. He first tried to keep Kentucky neutral in the war, but when the state declared its loyalty to the Union, he felt forced to choose sides. Breckinridge was expelled from the Senate on December 4, 1861, for supporting the rebellion. Because of his pro-Confederate sympathies, on February 5, 1862, the Kansas Legislature renamed Breckinridge County as Lyon County, in honor of General Nathaniel Lyon (1818-1861), who became the first Union general to die in battle in the Civil War when he was killed in action at Wilson's Creek, Missouri, on August 10, 1861. Breckinridge later served as a major general in the Confederate Army and as the Confederacy's fifth and last Secretary of War from February to May 1865.

(From: Kansas State Journal, Lawrence, April 23, 1863, p. 3; United States Census, 1860, Kansas, Breckinridge (Lyon) County; Breckinridge County, Kansas, Kansas Counties, Kansas Historical Society website; Lyon County, Kansas, Kansas Counties, Kansas Historical Society website; Vice Presidents of the United States, John C. Breckinridge (1857-1861), United States Senate website; and, John C. Breckinridge, Wikipedia article. Published 4/11.
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May 8, 1863 - Dick Yeager raids the village of Black Jack in Douglas County, Kansas - Richard F. "Dick" Yeager, sometimes spelled Yager, was probably born on March 28, 1839, in Washington, Kentucky. He came from a prominent and wealthy family who apparently moved to Missouri shortly after his birth. He was the son of James B. Yeager, who became presiding judge of the Jackson County, Missouri, Court, in 1840, and who was elected in 1858 for one term in the Missouri State Legislature. Prior to the beginning of the Civil War, the elder Yeager also ran a freight business that carried goods along the Santa Fe Trail. Dick Yeager worked for his father in the freight business, and was in charge of one of his father’s wagon trains. As such, young Yeager would have been familiar with the towns and villages on the Trail. One of the villages he would have known of was Black Jack, a small community that serviced wagons and supplied travelers moving along the Trail. The community was established in southeast Douglas County, Kansas Territory, in 1857, approximately a mile east of the site of the Battle of Black Jack, in which the abolitionist John Brown led a Free-State militia in a successful attack on a pro-slavery militia early on the morning of June 2, 1856. The area was known as Black Jack because of the abundance of Black Jack Oaks there. Throughout the Kansas Territorial period and on through the Civil War, the border between Kansas and Missouri was the site of significant violence, first over the issue of whether Kansas would enter the Union as a slave state or a free state, and then as a result of the increasingly bitter feelings generated during the War. Just a few months before the outbreak of the War, Dick Yeager married Martha J. Muir on November 22, 1860. As a result of the bitter feelings along the border, that War came home to Dick Yeager soon after its outbreak in April 1861. Upon returning from one of his wagon train journeys, he found that his father's farm had been raided and burned by Jennison's Jayhawkers, a Union cavalry regiment led by Charles R. Jennison, known for its harsh treatment of Confederate sympathizers. As a result of the raid on his father's farm, Dick Yeager joined the notorious Confederate guerrilla leader William Clark Quantrill, eventually serving as a captain in his band of raiders. Quantrill and his men terrorized the Kansas - Missouri border for most of the rest of the War. On May 4, 1863, Dick Yeager led a group of the guerrillas on what proved to be an unsuccessful raid on Council Grove, Kansas. On their way back to Missouri, the men raided settlements along the Santa Fe Trail, stopping at Black Jack on May 8. They robbed the store owned by N. H. Brockway and S. A. Stonebraker, and stole all the horses that were owned by the overland stage route. Although they were robbed, the citizens of Black Jack were otherwise unmolested by Yeager and his men. The same cannot be said about Yeager's visit to Lawrence, Kansas, three and a half months later on August 21, 1863. At dawn on that day, Quantrill led 400 of his men, including Dick Yeager, into the former headquarters of the Free-State movement, and proceeded to burn and pillage the town. During the three-hour raid, over 150 men and boys were killed by the guerrillas, and most of the buildings in the town were destroyed. After the attack on Lawrence, Dick Yeager continued to lead guerrilla raids in Kansas and Missouri. Then, on July 19, 1864, he was seriously wounded in a battle at Arrow Rock, Missouri. He was apparently recovering from his wounds when he was attacked and killed in August, conflicting accounts giving the date of his death as either the 1st or the 12th. One account of his death was written by Margaret Jane Hays, a relative of Yeager's, in a letter to her mother. In part it reads (original punctuation and spelling are retained), "Mother you heard that Dick was killed some time ago. He was not killed then but poor fellow is gone now. Oh Mother it is hard to think of, he was wounded at Arrow Rock in the head. He fell from his horse, did not come to hisSelf for some time, was run over by horses, brake one leg but was getting well of his wounds when he was come upon by the D..... They murdered him in a most cruel manner. It nearly kills his poor old father, his Mother I fear for her for she is sick and this news will go hard with her altho she has been expecting it. Dicks wife and Chile is in Texas." (From: Missouri History, Missouri State Legislators, 1820-2000, Missouri History website; Mrs. J. O. Williams Collection description, Kansas City Public Library, Missouri Valley Special Collections website; Quantrill of Missouri: the making of a guerrilla warrior: the man, the myth, the soldier, by Paul R. Petersen, Cumberland House Publishing, 2003, p. 151; Richard Francis Yeager, posting on Rootsweb.Ancestry.com; , Wikipedia article; Border Troubles in Morris County, Legends of Kansas website; William G. Cutler's History of the State of Kansas, Douglas County, Part 34; Yeager, Richard (Dick), Charcoal Portrait, Kansas City Public Library, Missouri Valley Collection website; Letter 58, Fulton Caliway Co. Mo., September the 7/64, Mag J. (Margaret Jane Hays) to Dear Mother, The Watts Hays Letters website; and, Footnotes for Letters 54 - 60: 1861 -1865 - The Civil War Years, The Watts Hays Letters website. Published 5/11.)  Back to top of page

June 29, 1875 - Bud McDaniel, reputed member of the James Gang, dies in the Douglas County, Kansas, Jail - On the morning of December 8, 1874, Mary Steel, who lived near the bridge that spanned the Kansas River at Kansas City, Kansas, saw three horsemen heading north toward the town of Muncie, Kansas. Muncie was six miles west of Kansas City, Kansas, and was formerly the old Delaware Indian town known as both Secondine and Delaware. Though small, the town was an important point for shipping the area's agricultural products on the Kansas Pacific Railroad. The three men that Ms. Steel saw were eventually joined by two others, and the five arrived at the railroad station in Muncie at around 3:00 pm. They robbed the stationmaster at gunpoint, and then forced some section hands to pile rails and ties onto the tracks. They then locked the hands in a hut and prepared to meet the 4:30, the next train due. As the train approached, the gunmen forced one of their captives to flag it down. When the train's engineer saw the flag, he stopped the train. Two of the gunmen jumped into the cab of the locomotive and captured the engineer and fireman. Two others took charge of the express manager and baggage man in the baggage car, and the fifth man went through the passenger compartments warning those inside not to make any trouble. The robbers ordered the express manager to unlock the Wells Fargo safe in the baggage car, which he did. They took the contents of the safe, later reported to be $5,000 in gold dust and $18,000 in currency, and rode off, firing several warning shots to keep the passengers on the train. As they made their escape, they passed two local men who recognized three of the robbers. They were chased by a posse, but the pursuers were forced to abandon the chase when the outlaws fled into Missouri. Several days later, William J. "Bud" McDaniel, also know as "McDaniels", was arrested in Kansas City for "rowdy behavior and public drunkenness." He was found to be caring four pistols, a large amount of money, and items that linked him to the train robbery in Muncie. He was charged with participating in the crime. McDaniel was the son of a Kansas City saloonkeeper and his brother Thompson was a known member of the Jesse James Gang. Bud McDaniel's ties to the James Gang complicated the duties of the local authorities, because the gang had a significant amount of influence in Missouri and along the Kansas-Missouri border. They were concerned that their prisoner would be too much trouble for them to handle, and the report that prior to his arrest, McDaniel had been drinking with the Chief of Police of Kansas City did not give anyone confidence that he would stay in jail there. To assure that he would remain in custody until his trial, he was moved to Lawrence, Kansas, and put in the Douglas County Jail. The hope was that the forty or so miles separating Lawrence from Kansas City would be a safe distance from the Missouri border and anyone wishing to free him. Why they would have thought this is not clear, since William Clark Quantrill and 400 of his armed Confederate guerrillas, including Jesse James' older brother Frank, came out of Missouri and sacked, burned, and killed over 150 men and boys in Lawrence on August 21, 1863. The distance from the Missouri border to Lawrence did not dissuade Quantrill and his men. At about 6:30 in the evening of June 27, 1875, just a few days before McDaniel's trial was to begin, J.P. Estes went to the jail cell where McDaniel and a number of other prisoners were housed. Estes was the jail guard, and the only officer on duty watching the prisoners that evening. One of the prisoners had called for water, and Estes responded. He opened the cell door and was jumped by McDaniel, William Dunn, Robert Ingals, and Elijah Ledford. The jailer was hit in the head with an empty bottle and a shovel, and although he was cut on his head and stunned, he remained conscious. The four prisoners forced their way into the office, ransacked it, took a number of firearms and ammunition, and escaped. McDaniel and Dunn rode off on one horse, and Ingals and Ledford ran. McDaniel and Dunn came across a wagon being pulled by two horses, stopped it, and forced the driver to unhitch one of the horses. Dunn mounted it, and he and McDaniel rode together out of town to the west. The alarm was sounded and after about twenty minutes, a group of men rode off after the fleeing escapees. Word was sent out by telegraph to keep a watch for the escaped men. The posse had no luck, and one by one they returned to town over the evening hours to wait until the search could resume with the new day. At around 2:30 the next afternoon, June 28, a man rode into Lawrence announcing that McDaniel and Dunn had been spotted about five miles up the Kaw River in the Lakeview area northwest of Lawrence. Men hurried to the area to aid in the search. Louis Beurman, sometimes referred to as Bierman or Biermann, a local farmer who was known to be a good shot, heard of the proximity of the fugitives and joined the search. Beurman later recounted, "I had been harvesting Monday, and soon after midday I met Constable Phillips, who told me he had just seen McDaniels and Dunn seated on a log a short distance off … I ran back to my house, got out my rifle, an old squirrel rifle, and started in pursuit. … I ran about a quarter of a mile, when on coming to an open space I saw the two men. … They saw me at the same time, and McDaniels slipped from his horse and brought his gun to his shoulder. I took quick aim and fired. He felt the shot and almost fell forward on his face, but recovered himself immediately, pulling the trigger at me, the ball whistling over my head. Then he mounted, and together the two men dashed into the woods…." The two fugitives rode on for about a quarter mile before McDaniel became so weak that he nearly fell from his horse. They dismounted, tied up their horses, and walked on another quarter of a mile before lying down to hide. McDaniel and Dunn stayed hidden until dark. Several times during the day, their pursuers came very close to their hiding place, but did not discover them. McDaniel later reported that on three separate occasions he drew a bead on Beurman, intending to kill him, but that Dunn begged him not to, since that would mean Dunn would then be shot or captured. Shortly after dark, Dunn announced that he was leaving to try to get across the river. They shook hands, and then he left, taking all the arms and leaving McDaniel behind. McDaniel stayed in hiding until around midnight, when his burning thirst compelled him to crawl to the river to get a drink. He later reported that he was in agony the rest of the night, and then at daybreak he decided to give himself up. Shortly after, he emerged from the brush on the farm of Judge Solon O. Thacher, where he was met by a farm employee. McDaniel asked for a drink of water. He was helped to a nearby cabin, given water, and then readied to be taken into town. Several men put McDaniel into a wagon and brought him back to town, meeting a group of men, led by the sheriff and a deputy, who were coming out to recommence the search that day. He was taken back to the jail where, "Nearly every physician in town examined the wound, each pronouncing it fatal." McDaniel had been shot in the abdomen near the naval, the bullet perforating the small intestine. He was kept as comfortable as possible the rest of the day. An agent of Wells Fargo arrived and questioned him about the Muncie robbery, but McDaniel would not reveal anything about it. At about five in the afternoon, he began to sink rapidly, and died soon after, never revealing who his accomplices were. The next day, June 30, a coroner's inquest was held, and the Bud McDaniel case was closed. That same day, word came that Dunn had been seen in Vinland, Kansas, a town about ten miles southeast of Lawrence. A posse hurried down and found Dunn hiding in timber along the west branch of Coal Creek, a little west of Vinland. The fate of Ingals and Ledford is not known. Thompson McDaniel, Bud McDaniel's brother, was shot in Kentucky while trying to escape from a robbery in West Virginia. He died on September 18, 1875, just three months after his brother. It is uncertain whether Bud McDaniel was actually a member of the James Gang. It is also uncertain whether the Muncie train robbery was done by members of the James Gang, or was carried out by associates of the gang using methods pioneered by them. In 1958, the old "squirrel gun" that killed Bud McDaniel, actually a German Schuetzen rifle, was donated to the Kansas Historical Society by a nephew of Louis Beurman. It is in the collections of the Kansas Museum of History in Topeka. (From: Muncie, Wyandotte County, Ghost Towns of Kansas: Revisited (2009), DanielcFitzgerald.com website; Description, Historic Spots or Mile-Stones in the Progress of Wyandotte County, Kansas, Kansas City Public Library, Missouri Valley Special Collections website; Republican Daily Journal and Kansas Daily Tribune, v. 7: issue 96 (June 29, 1875), issue 97 (June 30, 1875), and issue 98 (June 1, 1875); Quantrill and the border wars, by William Elsey Connelley, Torch Press, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 1910, p. 317; Cool Things - Rifle from James Gang Shootout, Kansas Historical Society website; The James-Younger Gang Also Rans, The James-Younger Gang website; The James-Younger Gang, Wikipedia website; and, The Jesse James Gang, Kansas Heritage Group website. Published 6/11.)  Back to top of page

July 28, 1856 - Charles Robinson, future Governor of Kansas, writes to John C. Fremont from prison in Camp Sackett, Douglas County, Kansas Territory - Doctor Charles Robinson arrived in Kansas Territory in the late summer of 1854, leading a party sent out by the New England Emigrant Aid Company. The Company had been formed in Massachusetts to send Free-State emigrants out to the newly organized territory to work for it to be admitted to the Union as a state that did not allow slavery. The Kansas-Nebraska Act, signed into law by President Franklin Pierce on May 30 of that year, had opened up the possibility that, through a vote of the residents, the territory could become a slave state. The signing of this Act had repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, which had set the southern boundary of Missouri to be the northern boundary of new slave states. The rules had suddenly changed, and because Kansas should have been a free state under the old rules, eastern abolitionists were determined not to let it become a slave state. Immediately upon arriving in Kansas, Robinson and the others in the party set out helping establish the city of Lawrence, which became know as the headquarters of the Free-State movement. The first Territorial election was scheduled on March 30, 1855, with the intent to elect a territorial legislature. On that day, thousands of men from Missouri came over the border and took control of the polling places. Even though they were not residents of the Territory and so should not have been eligible to vote, they did so anyway. In addition, they kept Free-State men from voting. The resulting proslavery legislature, know to the Free-State men in the Territory as the "Bogus Legislature," went about writing a proslavery constitution, known as the Lecompton Constitution after the then proslavery capitol of the Territory, and began setting up a proslavery government. The Free-State men in the Territory were not willing to let the illegally elected legislature form a proslavery state government, so they wrote their own Free-State constitution, known as the Topeka Constitution, and set about organizing a competing Free-State government. On January 15, 1856, Robinson was elected Governor of the Territory under the Topeka Constitution. The Federal Government did not recognize the Topeka Constitution as legitimate, and President Pierce considered all the officers elected under it to be committing treason. In March, the officers elected under the Topeka Constitution were sworn in and the proslavery sheriff of Douglas County, Sam Jones, recorded their names for future action. Robinson attempted to avoid conflict with federal authorities who did not recognize the legitimacy of the Topeka Constitution, but he incurred their wrath by ignoring laws passed by the proslavery territorial legislature. After taking office, Robinson left on a trip back east to promote the Free-State cause. On May 5, a grand jury of the United States District Court at Lecompton under the presiding Judge Samuel Lecompte, chief justice of the Kansas Territorial Supreme Court, issued indictments against the Free-State officials, indicting Robinson for treason and usurpation of office. On May 10, Robinson was arrested in Lexington, Missouri. He was brought back to Kansas and taken to Camp Sackett, a United States military camp in northwest Douglas County, Kansas Territory. The camp was a tent city, named for Captain Delos Sackett of the 1st Cavalry at Fort Leavenworth, that occupied a prairie covered ridge about 3 1/2 miles southwest of Lecompton. As many as 500 troops were garrisoned there throughout most of 1856 in an attempt to keep peace between Free-State and proslavery militias. Eventually, seven Free-State men, including Robinson, collectively known as the "Treason Prisoners", were incarcerated at Camp Sackett. On July 28, 1856, Robinson wrote a letter to John C. Fremont, who was running as the first Republican nominee for President of the United States using the political slogan, "Free soil, free labor, free speech, free men, Fremont." In the letter, Robinson comments on his imprisonment, writing, "Affairs here are as bad as they can be. Tyranny rules with a rod of iron." He continues with a more ominous statement, "It is unknown as yet whether Pierce has fully decided to hang us or not. However, if our hanging can change this infernal administration they will not make much by the investment." On the day set for the trials of the imprisoned Free-Staters, neither judge nor jury, clerk nor marshal appeared, so the proceedings had to be postponed until their arrival the next day. After their arraignment, the prisoners' council pressed Judge Lecompte for an immediate trial. The prosecuting counsel argued for a postponement, basing their arguments on the grounds that a jury could not be obtained and that important witnesses were absent, due to the Territory being in insurrection. Judge Lecompte denied all motions for postponement. The next day, September 10, Charles Robinson was arraigned for trial, separately, on a charge of usurpation of office. Reversing his decision of the previous day, Judge Lecompte decided to continue all the defendants' cases because "the great excitement prevailing in the country was such as to prevent a fair trial of the prisoners." Robinson was granted bail of $500 on the charge of usurpation of office. He and the other prisoners were then arraigned again for treason, granted bail of $5,000 each, had their new cases continued, and were released. It was speculated that the real reason for Judge Lecompte's granting a continuance was the supposed imminent arrival of the new Kansas Territorial Governor John Geary, who was known as sympathetic to the Free-State cause and who might have influenced the trial in the defendants' favor. The treason charges against all the defendants, including Robinson, were dropped prior to their coming to trial. In August 1857, Robinson was brought before Judge Sterling G. Cato, associated justice of the Kansas Territorial Supreme Court, on the charge of usurpation of office. Judge Cato, who was well know as a proslavery activist, did his best to get a conviction, but the jury acquittal Robinson of the charge on August 20, 1857. His council had convinced them that, owing to the Topeka Constitutional Convention being illegitimate, all offices created under it were void, and there could be no usurpation of an office that did not exist. Kansas was admitted to the Union as a Free-State on January 29, 1861, and Robinson became the first Governor of the State of Kansas on February 9, 1861. During his term of office, he became involved in a dispute with the state legislature over the sale of some bonds, and they passed an article of impeachment against him. He was not convicted, and was able to serve his full term in office, leaving on January 12, 1863. (From: Charles Robinson, Kansapedia website; A History of Lawrence from the earliest settlement to the close of the rebellion, by Richard Cordley, E. F. Caldwell, Lawrence, Kansas, 1895, Chapter 1; Charles Robinson, Kansas: a cyclopedia of state history, embracing events, institutions, industries, counties, cities, towns, prominent persons, etc., Standard Publishing Co, Chicago, 1912, v. 3; The Sack of Lawrence, the Civil War Muse website; William G. Cutler's History of the State of Kansas, Territorial History, Part 41; Camp Sackett, Historic Lecompton website; History of the United States Republican Party, Wikipedia website; List of Governors of Kansas, Wikipedia website; and, Letter, C. Robinson, Camp Sacket, to Hon. J. C. Fremont, July 28, 1856, Territorial Kansas Online website. Published 7/11.)  Back to top of page

August 22, 1863 - Thomas Corlew lynched in Lawrence, Kansas - Lawrence, Kansas, had been the headquarters of the Free-State movement during the new state's territorial period, and had been sacked and burned by proslavery supporters on May 21, 1856. At dawn on August 21, 1863, William Clarke Quantrill, perhaps the most notorious Confederate guerilla commander in the American Civil War, led 400 men in another, more violent attack on Lawrence. The raiders proceeded to pillage and burn the town, eventually murdering between 150 and 200 unarmed men and boys. The raid precipitated another event the following day, when a man was hanged in Lawrence. The true story of that man, described as being forty-five to fifty years old with thinning hair turning to grey, is clouded by differing accounts given of him and his actions. His name was Thomas Corlew, but whether this was the name he was going by in Lawrence is uncertain. An article in the August 27, 1863, edition of the Leavenworth Daily Conservative refers to him as John Calloo. This might have been a mistake on the part of the paper, or it might have been a pseudonym the man was using to conceal his true identity. An article by John Speer(1) published in the August 27, 1863, edition of the Kansas Weekly Tribune reported that it was later proven that Corlew had changed his name when coming to Lawrence, so the possibility of him having gone under the assumed name of John Calloo is plausible. Corlew and two of his brothers had supposedly come to Kansas Territory from Missouri in 1854, and were supporters of the Territory being admitted to the Union as a state that allowed slavery, as were most of the other emigrants from that slave state. The Corlews settled along the Wakarusa River near McGee's Ford in an area where proslavery men lived. According to Speer's Kansas Weekly Tribune article, Thomas Corlew, "…belonged to a gang on the Wakarusa…[whose] huts and haunts were so located that a single yell would be re-echoed for five miles, and the demons would assemble at a half-hour's notice." Speer's article identified Corlew as a member of the proslavery group that had killed John Jones in an unprovoked attack on May 18, 1856, and who also had participated in the burning of the Free State Hotel in Lawrence three days later. It is unclear whether Corlew and his brothers were actually active supporters of the proslavery cause in Kansas, as Speer alleged, or if they had merely joined in with other more active proslavery men living around them for their own protection. Because of the violence and bloodshed occurring during the period known as "Bleeding Kansas", it was difficult to remain neutral on the slavery issue. A man might be accosted by a group of unknown men who would ask him if he were "sound on the goose." Being "sound on the goose" meant that someone supported the proslavery cause, the "goose" being a euphemism for slavery. If the poor man did not give the strangers the answer that they wanted, he could wind up with a knife or bullet in him. Men on both sides of the slavery issue were known to ask that question, so because of the potential danger, many men joined one side or the other out of fear and a need for self-preservation. Regardless of the reasons, Thomas Corlew had gained the reputation of being a violent proponent of the proslavery cause in 1856, the bloodiest year in "Bleeding Kansas." Considering this, one can understand why he might have taken an assumed name while living in Lawrence. In a May 22, 1905, letter to George W. Martin, James C. Horton(2) wrote about Corlew's time in Lawrence, noting that, "He was a carpenter by trade, …and so far as I know, working peaceably at his trade." In an article published in the October 10, 1929, issue of the Ottawa Herald, W.C Wallace, son of saloonkeeper M.M. Wallace and a nine-year-old boy at the time of Quantrill's Raid, recounted the events in his Lawrence home the morning of the raid. He was reported to have said, "We had no advance information of the coming of the ‘rebels’ as the raiders were called…. Thomas Corlew, who was a connection of ours, had been staying for a time at our house. He was greatly terrified by the massacre, showing it plainly through extreme nervousness." A quite different account of Thomas Corlew's actions during the raid was recorded years later by Andrew Williams, an ex-slave who lived in Lawrence and who survived the raid. Williams remembered that a woman had seen Corlew going around with the raiders, showing them where men were hiding so that they could be killed. After the raid, some of the survivors became suspicious that Corlew was a spy for Quantrill. The reasons for this suspicion are not known. Perhaps it was because the Wallace house, where Corlew was living, was untouched by the violence that had descended on the town earlier that day. Perhaps the woman mentioned in William's account spoke up. Speer reports in his newspaper article that Corlew's son-in-law had "removed his family" out of town the day before the raid, which could also have caused suspicion. Whatever the reasons, as reported by Wallace, "It seems that some of the Free State men suspected him of being a spy, or at least in sympathy with the rebels, and a mob formed…." They took Corlew into custody, and on the day following the raid, a trial was held for the accused spy. A jury was impaneled and three judges were chosen. Corlew was allowed to have a lawyer to defend himself and the trial proceeded. A number of people testified. Speer reported that among those who testified were, "colored men who knew him in Kansas city (sic.)," and by this, "he was proven to be a rebel, threatening death to the people of Kansas." Speer continued, "He was proven to have changed his name on coming to Lawrence, and representing himself as having come from Quincy, Illinois, when in fact he was from Missouri." Speer concluded, "We asked him if he was the Corlew who had a cabin near M'Gees Ford, on the Wakarusa. He admitted he was-- That was enough. He was a murderer, and deserved death." Following the testimony of the witnesses, the jury went out to deliberate. One story says that when it came back, the members desired that the crowd take responsibility. In his 1905 letter, Horton remembered things a bit differently when he wrote, "…my recollection also is that the jury did not find any evidence against him and so reported." According to Horton, Thomas Corlew, "…sat there during his so-called trial without uttering a word, he was a pitiful sight." Speer reported, "He exhibited a great deal of trepidation during the trial, rolling his eyes wildly; but when his time came, he seemed more composed, merely feeling his throat, but making no outcry." Whatever the evidence brought against Corlew, and whatever the actions of the jury, a vote was taken to hang him. Horton wrote that the hanging occurred, "…in a barn near the City Hotel at the north end of Massachusetts Street." A rope was thrown over a joist in the barn and tied around Corlew's neck. Horton reported that, "I...went to one or two parties whom I thought might stop it, but to no avail." Corlew was forced to stand on a dry goods box, which was then pulled out from under him. Williams reported that as he hung there dying, Corlew was shot half a dozen times by members of the mob. Speer reported that, "There was no demonstration of delight at his death. The proceedings were orderly; characterized by a deep determination to rid the world of a traitor and murderer." The true nature of Corlew's guilt will probably never be known. There are enough discrepancies in the various reports of his actions during the raid to have warranted a deeper examination of the evidence than the lynch court would have given it. It is likely that Thomas Corlew, through fact or rumor, would already have been the object of hard feelings from the citizens of Lawrence, and the absolute devastation and grief caused by Quantrill's Raid would have pushed those hard feelings into a mindless thirst for vengeance. Horton keenly observed this when he wrote that, "His hanging was perhaps a natural outcome of the excited state of public feelings at the time, …but I think that many people in Lawrence regretted the occurrence and in ordinary, quiet times no such termination of a trial, even by a lynch court, would have been permitted." It is likely that many of Horton's fellow citizens would have agreed with him that given the circumstances, Corlew's fate might have been unavoidable. However, Horton went on to write, "I have always felt personally that this hanging was a disgrace to Lawrence." Many of his fellow citizens likely agreed with that sentiment as well, since the fate of Thomas Corlew and what had happened to him in Lawrence on August 22, 1863, has all but disappeared from communal memory.

(1) It should be noted that John Speer's opinions and observations might have been colored by the fact that he lost two sons in Quantrill's Raid, and that the Kansas Weekly Tribune article was published only six days after the event.

(2) James Clark Horton was born in Ballston Spa, New York on May 15, 1837. He came to Kansas and settled in Lawrence in March of 1857. He served in the Kansas House of Representatives in 1874, and in the Kansas Senate in 1875 and 1876. In 1878, he moved to Kansas City, Missouri, where he died on May 14, 1907.

(From: Letter, James C. Horton, Kansas City, Mo., to Hon. George W. Martin, Topeka, Kans., May 22, 1905, Kansas State Historical Society Library; Leavenworth Daily Conservative, v. 7, issue 48 (August 27, 1863), p.2; Kansas Weekly Tribune, August 27, 1863, p.1;
Joseph Savage's recollections of 1854, Kansas Memory website; Ottawa Herald, v. 33, no. 273 (October 10, 1929), pp. 1-2; Narrative of a Former Slave, by Andrew Williams, unpublished manuscript, Kansas Collection, Kenneth Spencer Research Library, University of Kansas; The Devil knows how to ride: the true story of William Clarke Quantrill and his Confederate raiders, by Edward E. Leslie, Random House, New York, 1996, p. 236; History of Lynchings in Kansas, by Genevieve Yost, Kansas Historical Quarterly, vol. 2, no. 2 (May 1933), pp 182 - 219; and, Kansas Legislators Past & Present, James Clark Horton, State Library of Kansas website. Published 8/11.)  Back to top of page

September 18, 1856 - Mr. Perkins imprisoned in Lecompton, Kansas - On September 9, 1856, John White Geary, a Pennsylvania native, was installed as the third governor of the newly organized Territory of Kansas. Unlike the two men who held the office before him, Geary was an Independent who had the reputation of being at least neutral on the issue of whether Kansas should be admitted to the Union as a state that allowed slavery. Former governors Andrew Horatio Reeder and Wilson Shannon were both Democrats, and were both sympathetic to, some said actively in support of, the proslavery faction in the Territory. The months preceding Geary taking the oath of office had been anything but calm. With the sacking of Lawrence by proslavery forces on May 21st, the Pottawatomie Massacre on the night of May 24th-25th, the Battle of Black Jack on June 2nd, the first Battle of Franklin on June 4th, the murder of Free-State supporter David Starr Hoyt on August 11th, the second Battle of Franklin on August 12th, and the Battle of Fort Titus on August 16th, the deadly violence in "Bleeding Kansas" seemed to be escalating out of control. Geary wanted to re-establish the rule of law so that the question over slavery for the territory could be decided by peaceful means. Complicating this was the fact that the two former territorial governors were not the only public officials who supported slavery in Kansas. Samuel Dexter Lecompte was chief justice of the Kansas Territorial Supreme Court, and a strong supported of slavery in Kansas. In September of 1856, he issued warrants for the arrest of a number of Free-State men, and instructed Israel B. Donaldson, United States Marshal of Kansas Territory, to execute the warrants. Donaldson, himself a proslavery supporter, was "considerably advanced in years," and did not usually go out into the field, instead sending out his deputies. Many of them were considered rabid supporters of slavery by the Free-State men in the Territory. Because of the animosity between Donaldson's deputies and Free-State men, his men were reluctant to serve warrants without armed escort by United States dragoons(1) that had been stationed in Kansas to help keep the peace. Donaldson made numerous requests of Governor Geary for the assistance of the dragoons. One such request was made by Donaldson to Geary on September 17, 1856, for "a posse of United States troops [to] be furnished me to assist in making…arrests, and for the due execution of a number of other warrants, now in my hands." Colonel Philip St. George Cook, commander of the United States dragoons stationed near Lecompton, then the capital of the Territory, supplied 200 mounted men for the task. The dragoons left Lecompton on the afternoon of the 17th, accompanied by Donaldson and Governor Geary, and headed for Topeka. Donaldson was going to Topeka because that is where the men named in the warrants were reported to be residing. Geary was going to Topeka to begin his efforts to re-establish order. A bad storm broke out soon after they set out from Lecompton, forcing them to stop after only about ten miles and camp for the night at Tecumseh. They broke camp early the next day and arrived in Topeka about 8:00 am. Word had reached Topeka that Geary was coming to town to speak, and a crowd met the procession as it arrived. The dragoons surrounded the crowd, and Donaldson read out the names of those who were to be arrested. The named men were soon placed in custody. The remaining citizens organized a town meeting at which the Governor spoke. His words inspired the crowd, and "resolutions were passed approving his course, and promising a hearty support to his administration." The Governor and the Marshall returned to Lecompton that day, presumably accompanied by the dragoons and the prisoners. One of those prisoners was a Mr. Perkins. A letter written on October 23, 1856, by Milton Dickey addressed to Thaddeus Hyatt, describes Mr. Perkins' experiences as a prisoner in Lecompton. The letter reports that Perkins was "held as prisoner at Lecompton[,] charged with over a hundred others with the crimes of Murder[,] Treason[,] Arson[,] Manslaughter[,] and Robery[sic.]." Dickey wrote that Perkins reported the prisoners had been left for forty hours without anything to eat, and that they had tried to buy food from their guards, offering as much as twenty-five cents for one cracker, but were turned down. Sometime later, Perkins managed to escape from his confinement, crawling four hours on his belly to get away. He subsequently left Kansas Territory, arriving in Mount Pleasant, Iowa, on the evening of October 23, 1856. There he related his experiences to Dickey, which likely prompted Dickey to write to Hyatt. Just who was this Mr. Perkins, and what was his origin and subsequent fate, is not known. As to John W. Geary's fate, he was fired as Governor of Kansas Territory by President James Buchanan on March 20, 1857, eventually being replaced by Robert J. Walker, a Democrat. Geary served in the Union Army during the Civil War, being wounded three times, and rose to the rank of brevetted major general. After the war, he was elected to two terms as Governor of Pennsylvania, serving from 1867 to 1873.

(1) Until 1861, the mounted branch of the United State military was called the dragoons. From 1861 on, it was called the cavalry.

(From:
John W. Geary, Wikipedia website; Geary and Kansas: Governor Geary's Administration in Kansas with a complete history of the Territory until July 1857…, by John H. Gihon, Charles C. Rhodes, Philadelphia, 1857, Chapter XXXVII; Letter, M. C. Dickey to Mr. [Thaddeus] Hyatt, October 23, 1856, Territorial Kansas Online website; and, Dragoon, Wikipedia website. Published 9/11.)  Back to top of page

October 19, 1856 - William Bowles dies in the "Great Political Prison" in Lecompton, Kansas - The violence between Free-State and proslavery partisans that had prompted eastern newspapers to begin referring to Kansas Territory as "Bleeding Kansas," increased during the late spring and summer of 1856. The sacking of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, by proslavery forces on May 21st, the Pottawatomie Massacre on the night of May 24th-25th, the Battle of Black Jack on June 2nd, the first Battle of Franklin on June 4th, the murder of Free-State supporter David Starr Hoyt on August 11th, the second Battle of Franklin on August 12th, the Battle of Fort Titus on August 16th, and the Battle of Osawatomie on August 30th, had each added to the escalation of the troubles. On September 8th, an armed body of proslavery men raided and burned Grasshopper Falls, a Free-State settlement approximately 15 miles north of Lawrence in Jefferson County. A day or so later, General James Henry Lane received word of problems at Ozawkie, another town in Jefferson County some 12 miles northwest of Grasshopper Falls. Lane was a lawyer and politician who had come to Kansas in 1855, and had eventually allied himself with the Free-State movement, unusual for a Democrat at the time. He had been appointed a General in the Free-State Militia and was known to have a fiery temper, becoming known as "The Grim Chieftain." Lane was leading a company of Free-State militia toward Holton, which was north of Topeka, when he received the message from Ozawkie, predominately a proslavery town. Free-State men who lived there requested that he come and stop the proslavery men in the town from preying on them. Lane abandoned his plans to go to Holton, and instead led his men to Ozawkie. Having restored order in the Ozawkie area, Lane's men were joined by a number of local Free-State men. Lane then learned that an armed force of over 100 proslavery men was at Hickory Point, and he determined that he would march there and capture the men. Hickory Point was a small settlement in Jefferson County, consisting of a few log buildings on the Fort Leavenworth-Fort Riley military road about twenty-eight miles northeast of Topeka. Captain H.A. Lowe was the owner of Hickory Point, and had recruited around 100 proslavery men, mostly settlers in the area, to defend his property. They had been joined by a force of around 40 South Carolinians commanded by a Captain Robertson, who had been harassing Free-State settlers in the county and were suspected of have been the men who had burned Grasshopper Falls. Lane and his men arrived on September 13, and proceeded to attack the buildings there. The attack was repulsed, and Lane realized that the buildings were too heavily fortified for him to be able to take without assistance. He sent messages to Colonel James A. Harvey and Captain Bickerton in Lawrence. He ordered Harvey to bring up reinforcements, and for Bickerton to bring "Old Sacramento," a bronze cannon that had been used by Free-State forces in the Battle of Fort Titus following its capture from proslavery men in the second Battle of Franklin. Lane directed them to come to Hickory Point by the long way through Topeka. Harvey assembled a force of about 125 men and set out that evening for Hickory Point, accompanied by Bickerton and "Old Sacramento." Instead of taking the road west to Topeka as Lane had ordered, Harvey marched his men on the direct route north from town. After having marched all night the 24 miles from Lawrence, they arrived at Hickory Point at around 10:30 on the morning of the 14th. Upon their approach, the proslavery men tried to retreat, but failing that, fell back into the log buildings. The Free-State men found that Lane and his men were nowhere to be found. Unbeknownst to them, after Lane had dispatched his orders to Harvey and Bickerton the previous day, he had received word that John Geary, the new territorial governor, had issued a proclamation that all militias disband immediately. Lane abandoned his plans to attack Hickory Point and led his men towards Topeka. Since he had ordered Harvey and Bickerton to take the Topeka Road, he expected to run into them and so be able to stop their advance. As the reinforcements had taken another route, the two groups did not meet, and Harvey and Bickerton did not know that the attack had been called off. After arriving at Hickory Point, Harvey had his men surround the log buildings. He ordered the cannon be brought up, and readied for firing. The first shot from "Old Sacramento" passed through the blacksmith shop, killing one man inside. About 20 more shots were fired but without effect. A steady rifle fire was kept up by both sides, but because of the distance between the two, there were few casualties. The Free-State men attempted to set the blacksmith shop on fire by pushing a wagon up next to it and setting the hay in it on fire, but were unsuccessful. Soon after, the proslavery men displayed a white flag, and both sides ceased firing. Messages went back and forth between the two sides and at around 5:00 PM, a compromise was reached. It was agreed that both sides would retire peaceably, give up all plunder that had been taken, and that all non-residents would leave the county. Besides the man killed by the cannon ball, four other proslavery men had been wounded. Three Free-State men had been shot in the legs, one had a head wound, and another had been shot through the lungs. The Free-State men left Hickory Point and headed back toward Lawrence, traveling about five miles before making camp for the night. Several men continued on with the wounded, trying to get them home that night. They had only gone about a mile when they met a troop of United States Dragoons under orders of Governor Geary, who took the men into custody. The dragoons followed their trail back to the camp and arrested all the Free-State men they could find. None of the proslavery men who had participated in the Battle of Hickory Point were arrested. After their capture, the prisoners had their weapons confiscated before they were marched to Lecompton, a proslavery town that was the territorial capital. A number of the Free-State men had managed to avoided capture, and a few were able to escape during the march to Lecompton, but 101 of them were still in captivity when they arrived in the capital. For the first week they were held by the dragoons, but then Colonel Henry T. Titus took charge of the prisoners, and they all were put into what one of them called "…an old shell of a house…" The building, described by a reporter from The Missouri Democrat as "…a frame house, poorly inclosed, without windows, and surrounded on all sides with filth and the Titus militia," was only about 20 by 30 feet square, with no furnishings but a small stove. There were few blankets, and the 101 men were so crowded into that small space that they had to take turns sleeping on the bare floor. A letter, written on October 19, 1856, and printed in the November 15, 1856, edition of The Herald of Freedom, was addressed "To the American People" and noted that it was written from the "Great Political Prison, Lecompton." The letter described the reasons for their incarceration and the conditions they were being forced to live in while a grand jury was supposedly determining who were to be tried and who were to be released. Because only Free-State men had been arrested for the fight at Hickory Point, the inmates felt that they were political prisoners. The letter writer likened the conditions there to the "Black Hole of Calcutta," a notorious dungeon in India. One of the prisoners was a young man named William R. Bowles. He was originally from Wisconsin, but had lived for at time in Saint Charles, Missouri, before coming to Kansas Territory in late July or early August of 1856. The reporter from The Missouri Democrat noted that, "He [Bowles] was going to the Territory in company with his brother, to find a new home. He was a Free-State man, quiet, gentlemanly and intelligent." On October 17th, Bowles became one of the many prisoners to fall ill. The reporter wrote that, "The miserable food and the exposure, and the loathsome nature of the prison, [had] induced a terrible disease, resembling yellow fever…." The prisoners who were fortunate enough to have blankets gave them up to make a bed for Bowles. Some of his fellow prisoners asked their guards to have Bowles moved to a quieter place, but their request was ignored. On the morning of the 18th, Governor Geary visited the prison. He was shown the seriously ill young man, and the prisoners told him they feared this was the beginning of an epidemic. The Governor said that he would leave orders that they "should be provided with every comfort that could be provided." Despite those assurances, when the prisoners sent word that night to every doctor in Lecompton requesting that they come and treat Bowles, all refused. One, a Dr. Brooks, was supposedly sent for five times, but was involved in a poker game, and was quoted as saying that he, "would not leave the game to save every God damned Abolitionist in the Territory." At one o'clock the next morning, October 19, 1856, William Bowles died. In the letter printed in the Herald of Freedom, it was noted that, "He labored with us nobly in defending our God given rights, and it was with feelings of unutterable sorrow that we parted with him." Bowles' body was brought to Lawrence for burial there. Although many of the other prisoners became seriously ill, his was the only death recorded from the men confined in Lecompton. After his death, some of Bowles' fellow prisoners manage to escape from confinement. Others were charged by the grand jury, tried, and convicted. The rest were set free. One of the men who survived the prison in Lecompton was John Kagi, who later became the lieutenant of John Brown. He went with him back east, and was killed during the Raid on Harpers Ferry in October of 1859. (From: Hickory Point, Battle of - Kansas: a cyclopedia of state history, embracing events, institutions, industries, counties, cities, towns, prominent persons, etc. ... / with a supplementary volume devoted to selected personal history and reminiscence. Standard Pub. Co. Chicago : 1912, vol. 1; William G. Cutler's History of the State of Kansas, Jefferson County, Part 3, Early Political Troubles; The Battle of Hickory Point, the Civil War Muse website; Testimonies of Nathaniel Parker, Horace L. Dunnell, Hinton S. Dunnell, Alexander MacArthur, James Hall, Jerome Hazen, and Charles Henry Caulkins, pp. 12-13, Territorial Kansas Online website; Herald of Freedom, Vol. 2, Issue 17 (November 15, 1856), p. 3; New York Tribune, November 10, 1856; Records, Abolition Activism in Wisconsin website; The Prison at Lecompton, Kansas, Abolition Activism in Wisconsin website; and, Names of prisoners in custody at Lecompton, Territorial Kansas Online website. Published 10/11.)  Back to top of page

November 7, 1856 - Captain John Donaldson frees one of his soldiers from a courtroom in Lecompton, Kansas Territory - John Donaldson was born in Kentucky in 1830, and came to Kansas Territory after having been appointed Auditor of Public Accounts for the Territory by Congress on August 30, 1854. He was proslavery, and supported Kansas being admitted to the Union as a state that allowed slavery. When he actually became a resident of the Territory is unclear, but he is reported to have been living in Jackson County, Missouri, at the time of the election for the first Territorial Legislature, held March 30, 1855. Despite not actually being a resident, Donaldson ran for a seat on the Territorial Council (Senate) for Riley County. On election day, thousands of proslavery Missouri residents, possibly including Donaldson, crossed into Kansas, took over polling stations, voted, in may cases refused to let Free-State men vote, and then went back home to Missouri. There were three times as many votes cast that day as there were eligible voters in Kansas. Only two Free-State candidates won seats. They were Martin F. Conway, who defeated Donaldson for a seat on the Council, and Samuel D. Houston, who won a seat in the House. Because of the way the election was carried out, Free-State men cried foul. Territorial Governor Andrew H. Reeder called for a new election, but only in those districts where formal complaints had been filed. Proslavery men boycotted the election that was held on May 22nd, so as a result, eight additional Free-State men were elected to the legislature. A legislative committee was appointed to evaluate the credentials of those elected, and since it was dominated by proslavery men, it refused to accept any of the Free-State men elected in May, and instead accepted all the proslavery men who had won the balloting in the election on March 30th. Martin Conway resigned from the legislature on July 3rd, in protest of this blatant violation of a free election, and the next day, July 4th, John Donaldson was appointed to Conway's seat. Houston resigned from his seat on July 23rd, leaving the Kansas Territorial Legislature entirely proslavery. In addition to his seat on the Council, Donaldson was a captain in the Kansas Militia, which operated as the enforcement arm of the "Bogus Legislature," so called by Free-State men because of the way it had been formed. On May 15, 1856, two Free-State men were brought into Donaldson's camp. One, a Mr. Mitchell, was carrying the mail from Lawrence, Kansas Territory, the headquarters of the Free-State movement. Donaldson allowed his men to take the mail from Mitchell. The two men were treated badly during their captivity, which ended on the 22nd when orders came down from headquarters to release the prisoners. On November 7, 1856, Donaldson led six armed men under his command into the courtroom of Justice of the Peace R.R. Nelson in Lecompton, Kansas, then the capital of the Territory. The Captain was there to rescue one of his men named Fisher, who was undergoing a hearing in Judge Nelson's court on the charge of larceny. Donaldson took Fisher away, dismissing the court, "in a manner that would have done credit to Oliver Cromwell." An appeal was made to Colonel Philip St. George Cooke, commander of the United States Dragoons stationed near Lecompton, to put Donaldson under arrest, which he did. On November 16th, Lieutenant William Franklin delivered to Donaldson a copy of the charges and specifications against him. Donaldson called on the Governor, and, "upon his making the proper explanation and apology, the charge was dismissed, Captain Donaldson reinstated in his command, and the matter was left to the action of the civil authorities." The civil authorities apparently took no action. Instead of serving out his full four-year term as Auditor of Public Accounts, Donaldson resigned from the office on February 20, 1857, apparently giving up on Kansas, and left the Territory. (From: John Donaldson, KansasBogusLegislature.org website; Free State Members, KansasBogusLegislature.org website; Geary and Kansas: Governor Geary's Administration in Kansas with a complete history of the Territory until July 1857…, by John H. Gihon, Charles C. Rhodes, Philadelphia, 1857, Chapter XXXII; Transactions of the Kansas State Historical Society, embracing the Fifth and Sixth Biennial Reports, 1886-1888, together with…ending March 10, 1857, Vol. IV, Kansas Publishing House, Topeka, 1890, p. 638; and, John Donaldson, Kansas Auditors, Kansas State Historical Society website. Published 11/11.)  Back to top of page

December 26, 1857 - A "rising voice in deep silence" deals with Christ Kuntz - Charles (Karl) Kaiser was originally from Bavaria, but lived for many years in Hungary. He had served in the revolutionary army during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, when the Kingdom of Hungary attempted to gain independence from the Austrian Empire. He had apparently seen much action in the revolution, as his face was described as being, "marked with saber cuts and lance thrusts." Kaiser came to the United States, and arrived in Kansas Territory sometime after it was opened to white settlement by the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. In Kansas, Kaiser was known as Dutch Charley. At that time, Germans were frequently referred to as Dutch, the name referring not to the Netherlands but instead being a corruption of the German word "Deutsch", meaning German. Kaiser became a supporter of the cause to bring Kansas into the Union as a state that did not allow slavery, and became an active member of the Free-State partisans as early as November 1855. On the night of November 26, 1855, he participated in the rescue of fellow Free-State supporter Jacob Branson from the proslavery sheriff of Douglas County, Kansas Territory, and then helped defend the town of Lawrence, Kansas Territory, from attack in the subsequent Wakarusa War. Kaiser became acquainted with the abolitionist John Brown, and fought alongside him in the Battle of Black Jack, June 2, 1856. He was again with Brown's militia in the Free-State settlement of Osawatomie, Kansas Territory, when on August 30, 1856, a large force of proslavery men attacked the town. The proslavery force drove out Brown's Free-State militia, and sometime during the fight, managed to capture Kaiser. After they defeated Brown's men, the proslavery men proceeded to sack and burn everything in town owned by Free-Staters. The proslavery force included two other ethnic Germans, Christ Kuntz and Henry Sherman, who was known as Dutch Henry. It was unusual for Germans in the Territory to be proslavery, as most were like Kaiser and against what John Brown called, "the sum of all villainies." Charles Leonhardt, anti-slavery activist and member of the secret Free-State society know as the Danites, commented on this when he wrote that Kuntz was, "…another descendent of the otherwise so favorable a race as friends of liberty, the Teutonic…." Leonhardt also noted that Kuntz was, "a very hard case" when it came to being proslavery. Dutch Henry himself was notorious to the Free-State supporters in the Territory for his proslavery activities, and his brother William had been one of the five men killed in the Pottawatomie Massacre on the night of May 24-25, 1856. After leaving Osawatomie in ruins, the men in the proslavery force held a council to decide what to do with their prisoner, Dutch Charley Kaiser. During the proceedings, Kuntz reportedly jumped to his feet shouting, "Let the Dutch kill the Dutch," and then commanded Dutch Henry to, "show his grit." In response, Dutch Henry rose, walked over to Kaiser, and shot him dead through the head. When news of the murder reached the Free-State camp, "…our members became silent. None spoke. They looked into each other's eye [sic]. They all understood the order--to be on a keen lookout for the murder [sic] and his associates. Both men, Dutch Henry and Koontz(1) were now by a rising voice in deep silence condemned to die." That rising voice spoke on the night of December 26, 1857(2). The January 2, 1858, edition of the Kansas Tribune newspaper carried an article that read, "A German by the name of Kuntz was found dead near his residence several miles south of Lecompton[, Douglas County, Kansas Territory,] a few [days] ago. He took a prominent part in the pro-slavery ranks during the troubles of 1856, and as the recollection of several dark deeds are associated with his name, it is not improbable that justice has been meted out to him by some of his old antagonists in rather a summary and unceremonious manner." As to the identity of these old antagonists, the newspaper was silent, but Charles Leonhardt wrote that, "John E. Stewart(3) and Willitz Dorn [or Horn]…rid the world of Christ Koontz." Assuming that Leonhardt's account is accurate, Stewart and Dorn were the embodiment of that "rising voice in deep silence," when they killed Kuntz. Although the killers of Kuntz were obviously known in some circles, the authorities never were told, and no one was every brought to trial for the killing of Christ Kuntz. Dutch Henry Sherman, the man Kuntz had goaded into murdering Kaiser, had himself been killed nine months before Kuntz, in March 1857, supposedly, "… by a party of men, simply for his money, of which he had collected a considerable amount." Whether this is correct, or whether Dutch Henry's demise was another expression of that "rising voice," is unknown.

(1) Several different spellings of the name exist in written accounts, including Kuntz, Kontz, and Koontz.

(2) In a letter to the editor printed in the March 9, 1900, issue of the Baldwin Ledger, an anonymous writer tells of some of the experiences he and a man he calls his brother had had during the turbulent times in the 1850s in Douglas County. From the tone of the letter, it is possible that he meant that the man was his brother-in-arms, and not actually a member of his family. It is also possible that the author of the letter, in describing the activities of his "brother," was using a fictitious person to mask an account of his own activities. Whatever the true identity of the writer, he mentions that a proslavery man named Koons, "who had killed his third free state man...," had "bit the dust upon the night of December 26, 1857, ...". The timing of when the writer indicated the man he called Koons "bit the dust" (i.e.: when he died), combined with the timing of when Kuntz's body had been discovered near Lecompton, and adding in the similarity of the two names, leaves little doubt that the letter writer was referring to Christ Kuntz. Assuming the writer was correct about the date, Christ Kuntz was killed on the night of December 26, 1857.

(3) John E. Stewart, also know by the alias Levi W. Plumb, was a Methodist minister who earned the nickname "the fighting preacher" for his militant support of the Free-State cause in Kansas. Stewart had also participated in the rescue of Jacob Branson in November 1856, so would undoubtedly have known Charlie Kaiser, and likely would have served with him in other Free-State activities. Considering his attitude and his militancy, Stewart would have been a good candidate to have helped, "…rid the world of Christ Koontz."

(From: The Secret Danites, Kansas' First Jayhawkers, by Todd Mildfelt, Todd Mildfelt Publishing, Richmond, KS, 2003, pp. 42-43; Kansas Tribune, v. 2, no. 49, (January 2, 1858), p. 2; German Republicans and Radicals in the Struggle for a Slave-Free Kansas: Charles F. Kob and August Bondi, by Frank Baron, Yearbook for German-American Studies, No. 40 (2005),
pp. 3-26; Hungarian Revolution of 1848, Wikipedia website; The Kansas Conflict, by Charles Robinson, Harper & Brothers, New York, 1892, p. 186; Thaddeus Hyatt Papers 1843-1898, Kansas Historical Society website; Geary and Kansas: Governor Geary's Administration in Kansas with a complete history of the Territory until July 1857…, by John H. Gihon, Charles C. Rhodes, Philadelphia, 1857, Chapter XXXI; William G. Cutler's History of the State of Kansas, Border Troubles - Part 2, Bourbon County, Part 3; John Stewart and Others of the Wakarusa/Kennedy Valley, Wakarusa River Valley Heritage Museum website; and, The Baldwin Ledger, v. 17, no. 21, (March 9, 1900), p.2. Published 12/11.)  Back to top of page

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